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  • Definition

    Otosclerosis is the growth of abnormal new bone in the inner ear. This growth prevents proper functioning of ear structures. Hearing loss can occur when the new bone surrounds the stapes and other small bones needed for hearing. This is a common cause of hearing loss.
    The Inner Ear
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  • Causes

    The cause of otosclerosis is still unknown, but genetics appears to play a role.
  • Risk Factors

    Otosclerosis is more common in Caucasians, Asians, females, and in people in their teens through late 40s. Other factors that may increase chance of otosclerosis include:
    • Family history of otosclerosis
    • Drinking nonfluoridated water—some studies suggest that nonfluoridated water may cause a susceptible person to develop otosclerosis
    • Hormonal factors, such as pregnancy
    • Viral infections, including measles
  • Symptoms

    Gradual hearing loss is the main symptom of otosclerosis. Hearing loss may be of 2 types:
    • Conductive—involving the small bones of the inner ear
    • Sensorineural—involving the cochlea, which is the sensory organ in the inner ear
    Early in the disease, you may first notice trouble hearing low-pitched sounds or whispers. Other symptoms may include:
    • A sensation of spinning—vertigo
    • Balance problems
    • A sensation of ringing, roaring, or buzzing in the ear—tinnitus
  • Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Your ears may be tested. This can be done with a hearing test.
    Images may be taken of your ear. This can be done with:
  • Treatment

    Treatments may include:
    Hearing Aid
    Hearing aids may be effective for conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
    In many cases, a procedure called a stapedectomy may improve hearing. The purpose of this operation is to replace the diseased bone with an artificial device that can transmit sound waves to the inner ear. Stapedectomy is effective and frequently returns hearing to a near normal level.
    Oral Treatment
    Fluoride tablets are sometimes prescribed to stabilize the condition and prevent further sensorineural hearing loss. However, this treatment remains controversial and unproven.
  • Prevention

    Prevention methods include:
    • Drinking fluoridated water
    • Getting the measles vaccination

    American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association


    Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada


    Otosclerosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated April 22, 2014. Accessed November 24, 2015.

    Otosclerosis. Massachusetts Eye and Ear website. Available at: Accessed August 4, 2015.

    Otosclerosis. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) website. Available at: Updated September 2013. Accessed August 4, 2015.

    What you should know about otosclerosis. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: Accessed August 4, 2015.

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