Ichthyosis

(Fish Scale Disease; Xeroderma)
  • Definition

    Ichthyosis is a dry skin condition. There are two general types:
    • Inherited ichthyosis—dryness and scaling of the skin due to hereditary factors
    • Acquired ichthyosis—thickening and scaling of the skin that is associated with certain medical disorders
  • Causes

    Inherited ichthyosis is caused by a genetic defect that is passed from parent to child or that occurs on its own.
    Acquired ichthyosis is relatively rare, but may be caused by any of the following:
  • Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your risk of ichthyosis include:
    • Family member with ichthyosis
    • Certain diseases
    Ichthyosis may be triggered by:
    • Cold weather
    • Frequent or lengthy bathing, especially in hot water
    • Harsh soaps or detergents
    • Soaps or lotions containing perfumes
  • Symptoms

    Ichthyosis can develop on any part of the body, but most often occurs on the legs, arms, or trunk. The symptoms can vary from mild to severe. In severe cases, the condition may be disfiguring. Symptoms may include:
    • Dry, flaking skin
    • Scaling of skin that gives skin the appearance of fish scales
    • Shedding of layers of the skin
    • Itching of skin
    • In severe cases, scarring and/or infection due to rubbing and scratching of scales or blisters
    With certain rare types of inherited ichthyosis, symptoms:
    • Appear immediately at birth
    • Are extremely severe, covering the entire body
    • Cause severe complications or death
  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Rarely, blood tests or a may be required.
    Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
    Skin Biopsy
    Skin proceedure
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  • Treatment

    Since there is no cure for ichthyosis, treatment consists of managing the symptoms. Most treatment is aimed at keeping the skin moist. In severe cases, medication may be prescribed. For the acquired form, treating the underlying condition may also help lessen the symptoms of the ichthyosis.
    Moisturizing Skin
    Many types of moisturizing ointments, lotions, and creams are used to relieve symptoms of ichthyosis. These include:
    • Petroleum jelly
    • Mineral oil
    • Creams, lotions, and ointments containing vitamin A
    • A large variety of over-the-counter, unscented moisturizers
    For ichthyosis that causes scaling:
    • Solutions or creams with lactic or salicylic acid or urea may help.
    • In some cases, you may be advised to wrap affected areas with a plastic or cellophane bandage after applying moisturizing agent. Such bandages should not be used on children.
    Medications
    In severe cases, medications are sometimes prescribed, including:
    • Retinoids to unclog pores and allow other topical medications to work better
    • Antipsoriatic medications used to treat psoriasis symptoms
    • Antibiotics to treat infection
    • Calcineurin inhibitors applied to the skin to treat symptoms of atopic dermatitis
    • Special soaps to disinfect the affected area
  • Prevention

    There are no guidelines for preventing the development of ichthyosis. However, steps to prevent this condition from getting worse include:
    • Bathing less often
    • Applying unscented moisturizer regularly and frequently, especially in winter
    • Using only mild soap
    • Avoiding:
      • Harsh soaps
      • Soaps with scents or perfumes
      • Skin contact with detergents
      • Cold, dry weather when possible
  • RESOURCES

    Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types http://www.firstskinfoundation.org

    The National Registry for Ichthyosis and Related Disorders http://www.skinregistry.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Dermatology Association http://www.dermatology.ca

    Dermatologists.ca http://www.dermatologists.ca

    References

    Ichthyosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 11, 2013. Accessed November 21, 2013.

    Newly diagnosed? Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types website. Available at: http://www.firstskinfoundation.org/content.cfm/Ichthyosis/Newly-Diagnosed/page%5Fid/1245. Accessed November 21, 2013.

    Revision Information

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