Calluses and Corns

  • Definition

    A callus is an abnormal thickening of the top layer of skin, which is composed of the natural protein, keratin. Calluses can form on areas that are repeatedly exposed to friction or pressure. They are usually painless or only mildly painful.
    A corn is a small, well-defined, thickened area of skin that forms on the toes. Corns put pressure on the underlying skin against the bone. They are usually inflammed and painful.
    A Corn
    IMAGE
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
  • Causes

    Calluses and corns form as protective pads of skin in response to repeated friction or pressure. Causes include:
    • Calluses—Any activity that applies repeated friction or pressure to an area of skin, including:
      • Lifting weights (hands)
      • Using tools (hands)
      • Playing a stringed instrument (hands)
      • Running long distances (feet)
      • Kneeling to lay carpet or tile (knees)
      • Walking on hard surfaces without shoes (feet)
    • Corns—Any activity or condition that applies repeated friction or pressure to the toes, including:
      • Wearing ill-fitting shoes
      • Bunching of socks around toes
      • Socks with seams that rub against the toes
      • Foot abnormality causing a protrusion that rubs against footwear
  • Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase the risk of calluses and corns include:
    • Professions or physical activities that cause repeated friction or pressure on the skin
    • Wearing ill-fitting footwear
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms of calluses include:
    • Rough, thickened area of skin
    • Painless or slight degree of pain, burning sensation
    • Yellow or reddish in color
    Symptoms of corns include:
    • Small, usually painful bump on the side or the top of the toe, or between toes
    • Yellow or reddish in color
  • Diagnosis

    The doctor will examine the skin where a corn or callus has formed. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and visual observation of the corn or callus. They are easily distinguished by:
    • Location—Corns usually only form on or between the toes.
    • Degree of pain—Corns are usually quite painful, while calluses are usually painless or only slightly painful.
    The doctor may need to use a scalpel to reveal the layers of the skin growth to make sure that it is a corn or callus, rather than a wart .
  • Treatment

    Treatment of calluses and corns usually includes self-care and medication. In severe cases, minor surgery may be necessary. People with diabetes or circulatory problems should always see a medical doctor or podiatrist for treatment. Self-treatment may lead to severe infection in these individuals.
    Self-Care
    For calluses:
    • Wear gloves, thick socks, or padding to protect skin.
    • Some calluses need to be thinned. Thin the callus by rubbing with a pumice stone while bathing.
    For corns:
    • Wear properly fitting shoes.
    • Remove bunching of socks, irritating stitching from socks, or any other irritant.
    • Thin the callus by rubbing with a pumice stone while bathing.
    • Try using doughnut-shaped corn pads, which may relieve pressure on corns.
    Medication
    Applying keratin-dissolving medication (such as salicylic acid) can help dissolve calluses and corns more quickly. Apply medicine carefully because it contains acid that may damage nearby healthy skin.
    Minor Surgery
    In severe cases, calluses and corns may need to be shaved off with a scalpel by a doctor. More extensive surgery may be needed to correct foot deformities that cause extremely painful or debilitating corns.
    If you are diagnosed as having a callus or corn, follow your doctor's instructions .
  • Prevention

    To prevent calluses:
    • Avoid activities that apply repeated friction or pressure to the skin.
    • Wear gloves, thick socks, or padding over the affected area of the skin.
    To prevent corns:
    • Wear properly fitted shoes.
    • Wear properly fitted socks with no irritating stitching.
  • RESOURCES

    American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org

    American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society http://www.aofas.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org

    Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org

    References

    Callus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com. Updated August 27, 2012. Accessed September 14, 2012.

    Corn. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com. Updated August 27, 2012. Accessed September 14, 2012.

    Corns. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00153. Updated March 2001. Accessed July 24, 2012.

    Corns and calluses. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/corns-and-calluses/DS00033. Updated May 24, 2012. Accessed July 24, 2012.

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