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Acoustic Neuroma

(Neurilemoma; Vestibular Schwannoma; Acoustic Schwannoma)
  • Definition

    An acoustic neuroma is a tumor that grows on the nerve leading from the brainstem to the ear. This nerve plays a role in hearing and in maintaining your balance. An acoustic neuroma grows slowly. It is a benign tumor, which means it is not cancerous. However, this condition can still cause serious problems.
    The Acoustic Nerve
    Nucleus factsheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
  • Causes

    The exact cause of acoustic neuroma is unknown.
  • Risk Factors

    Acoustic neuroma is most common between ages 30-60. Factors that may increase your chance of an acoustic neuroma include:
  • Symptoms

    The first symptoms of an acoustic neuroma include:
    • Gradual hearing loss in one ear with near normal hearing in the other ear
    • Decrease in sound discrimination, especially when talking on the telephone
    • Ringing in the affected ear—tinnitus
    As the neuroma gradually grows larger, symptoms may include:
    • Balance problems
    • Facial numbness and tingling
    • Weakness of the facial muscles on the side of the tumor
    If headaches or mental confusion occur, the tumor may be life threatening. Call your doctor right away.
  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. Your ears will be examined. Tests of your nervous system will also be done.
    Images may be taken of your head. This can be done with:
    Tests may be done on your ears. These may include:
    • Audiogram
    • Auditory brainstem response test
    • Electronystagmography
  • Treatment

    Treatment depends on your age, general health, the size and location of the tumor, and its rate of growth. Treatment may include:
    Observation
    If the tumor is very small, its growth may be monitored. Sometimes tumors do not grow any more. This is approach is common among people over age 70.
    Microsurgical Removal
    As the tumor grows and/or hearing becomes impaired, removal of the tumor may be needed. The type of surgery depends on the size and location of the tumor. Complications of surgery may include permanent hearing loss and/or paralysis of facial muscles on the affected side.
    Radiation Therapy
    Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cells and shrink tumors. Radiation is expected to prevent further growth of the tumor. Radiation may be used when tumors are small and surgery is not possible. This method may preserve hearing. It may be given over several treatments or as one large dose. You may be treated with a procedure called stereotactic radiosurgery. This surgery uses a focused beam of radiation to destroy the tumor tissue.
  • Prevention

    There are no current guidelines for preventing acoustic neuroma because the cause is not usually known.
  • RESOURCES

    Acoustic Neuroma Association http://www.anausa.org

    American Academy of Audiology http://www.audiology.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Academy of Audiology http://www.canadianaudiology.ca

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca

    References

    Acoustic neuroma. American Hearing Research Foundation. Available at: http://american-hearing.org/disorders/acoustic-neuroma. Updated October 2012. Accessed August 8, 2014.

    Acoustic neuroma. Vestibular Disorders Association. Available at: http://vestibular.org/acoustic-neuroma. Accessed August 8, 2014.

    Vestibular schwannoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 21, 2014. Accessed August 8, 2014.

    What is acoustic neuroma? Acoustic Neuroma Association website. Available at: http://www.anausa.org/index.php/overview/what-is-acoustic-neuroma. Accessed August 8, 2014.

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