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Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1Rahn H-D. Efficacy of hydrolytic enzymes in surgery. Presented at: Symposium on Enzyme Therapy in Sports Injuries: XXIV FIMS World Congress of Sport Medicine; May 29 1990; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2 Vinzenz K. Treatment of edema with hydrolytic enzymes in oral surgical procedures [translated from German]. Quintessenz. 1991;42:1053-1064.
3 Tassman GC, Zafran JN, Zayon GM. Evaluation of a plant proteolytic enzyme for the control of imflammation and pain. J Dent Med. 1964;19:73-77.
4 Zatuchni GI, Colombi DJ. Bromelains therapy for the prevention of episiotomy pain. Obstet Gynecol. 1967;29:275-278.
5 Howat RC, Lewis GD. The effect of bromelain therapy on episiotomy wounds—a double-blind controlled clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1972;79:951-953.
6 Seltzer AP. Minimizing post-operative edema and ecchymoses by the use of an oral enzyme preparation (bromelain): a controlled study of 53 rhinoplasty cases . Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon . 1962;41:813-817.
7 Spaeth GL. The effect of bromelains on the inflammatory response caused by cataract extraction: a double-blind study. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1968;47:634-639.
8 Gylling U, Rintala A, Taipale S, et al. The effect of a proteolytic enzyme combinate (bromelain) on the postoperative oedema by oral application. A clinical and experimental study. Acta Chir Scand. 1966;131:193-196.
9 Taylor HM, Rose KE, Twycross RG, et al. A double-blind clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in obstructive arm lymphoedema. Phlebology Suppl . 1993;1:22-28.
10 Mortimer PS, Badger C, Clarke I, et al. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in chronic arm oedema resulting from breast cancer treatment. Phlebology . 1995;10:51-55.
11 Piller NB, Morgan RG, Casley-Smith JR. A double-blind, cross-over trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (benzo-pyrones) in the treatment of lymphoedema of the arms and legs. Br J Plast Surg . 1988;41:20-27.
12 Habib AS, Itchon-Ramos N, Phillips-Bute BG, et al. Transcutaneous Acupoint Electrical Stimulation with the ReliefBand® for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting During and After Cesarean Delivery Under Spinal Anesthesia. Anesth Analg . 2006;102:581-584.
13 Taylor HM, Rose KE, Twycross RG, et al. A double-blind clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in obstructive arm lymphoedema. Phlebology Suppl . 1993;1:22-28.
14 Ho CM, Tsai HJ, Chan KH, et al. P6 acupressure does not prevent emesis during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg . 2006;102:900-903.
15 Casley-Smith JR, Casley-Smith JR. Modern treatment of lymphoedema II. The benzopyrones. Australas J Dermatol . 1992;33:69-74.
16 Pecking AP, Fevrier B, Wargon C, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of lymphedema (secondary to conventional therapy of breast cancer). Angiology . 1997;48:93-98.
17 Fassina A, Rubinacci A. Post-traumatic edema: a controlled study into the activity of hydroxyethyl rutoside [translated from Italian]. Gazz Med Ital Arch Sci . 1987;146:103-109.
18 Usichenko TI, Dinse M, Hermsen M, et al. Auricular acupuncture for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty - a randomized controlled study. Pain . 2005;114:320-327.
19 Lee H, Ernst E. Acupuncture analgesia during surgery: a systematic review. Pain. 2005;114:511-517.
20 Roy BD, De Beer J, Harvey D, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 2005;86:1293-1298.
21 Chung VQ, Kelley L, Marra D, et al. Onion extract gel versus petrolatum emollient on new surgical scars: prospective double-blinded study. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:193-198.
22Pecking A, Desprez-Curely JP, Megret G. Oligomeric grape flavanols (Endotelon®) in the treatment of secondary upper limb lymphedemas [translated from French]. Paris, France: Association de Lymphologie de Lange Francaise Hopital Saint-Louis. 1989; 69-73.
23 Baruch J. Effect of Endotelon in postoperative edema. Results of a double-blind study versus placebo in 32 female patients [in French]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet . 1984;29:393-395.
24 Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al. Ginger root—a new anti-emetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgery. Anaesthesia. 1990;45:669-671.
25 Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)—an anti-emetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia. 1993;48:715-717.
26 Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care . 1995;23:449-452.
27 Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, et al. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia . 1998;53:506-510.
28 Bechtold ML, Perez RA, Puli SR, et al. Effect of music on patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy. World J Gastroenterol . 2006;12:7309-7312.
29 Usichenko TI, Kuchling S, Witstruck T, et al. Auricular acupuncture for pain relief after ambulatory knee surgery: a randomized trial. CMAJ . 2007;176:179-183.
30 Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Sarquis T, et al. Static magnetic therapy does not decrease pain or opioid requirements: a randomized double-blind trial. Anesth Analg . 2007;104:290-294.
31 Wichmann MW, Thul P, Czarnetzki HD, et al. Evaluation of clinical safety and beneficial effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion (Lipoplus, MLF541): Data from a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Crit Care Med . 2007 Jan 25. [Epub ahead of print]
32 Kim JT, Ren CJ, Fielding GA, et al. Treatment with lavender aromatherapy in the post-anesthesia care unit reduces opioid requirements of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2007;17:920-925.
33 Scharbert G, Kalb ML, Duris M, et al. Garlic at dietary doses does not impair platelet function. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1214-1218
34 Harmon D, Gardiner J, Harrison R, et al. Acupressure and the prevention of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy. Br J Anaesth. 1999;82:387-390.
35 Harmon D, Ryan M, Kelly A, et al. Acupressure and prevention of nausea and vomiting during and after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84:463-467.
36 Alkaissi A, Stalnert M, Kalman S. Effect and placebo effect of acupressure (P6) on nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1999;43:270-274.
37 Ho CM, Hseu SS, Tsai SK, et al. Effect of P-6 acupressure on prevention of nausea and vomiting after epidural morphine for post-cesarean section pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1996;40:372-375.
38 Dundee JW, Chestnutt WN, Ghaly RG, et al. Traditional Chinese acupuncture: a potentially useful antiemetic? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;293:583-584.
39 Stein DJ, Birnbach DJ, Danzer BI, et al. Acupressure versus intravenous metoclopramide to prevent nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1997;84:342-345.
40 Allen DL, Kitching AJ, Nagle C. P6 acupressure and nausea and vomiting after gynaecological surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22:691-693.
41 Fan CF, Tanhui E, Joshi S, et al. Acupressure treatment for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1997;84:821-825.
42 Agarwal A, Pathak A, Gaur A. Acupressure wristbands do not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after urological endoscopic surgery. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47:319-324.
43 Lewis IH, Pryn SJ, Reynolds PI, et al. Effect of P6 acupressure on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing outpatient strabismus correction. Br J Anaesth. 1991;67:73-78.
44 Schwager KL, Baines DB, Meyer RJ. Acupuncture and postoperative vomiting in day-stay paediatric patients. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1996;24:674-677.
45 Schlager A, Boehler M, Puhringer F. Korean hand acupressure reduces postoperative vomiting in children after strabismus surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2000;85:267-270.
46 Schlager A, Offer T, Baldissera I. Laser stimulation of acupuncture point P6 reduces postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Br J Anaesth. 1998;81:529-532.
47 Barsoum G, Perry EP, Fraser IA. Postoperative nausea is relieved by acupressure. J R Soc Med. 1990;83:86-89.
48 Gupta S, Francis JD, Tillu AB, et al. The effect of pre-emptive acupuncture treatment on analgesic requirements after day-case knee arthroscopy. Anaesthesia. 1999;54:1204-1207.
49 Christensen PA, Rotne M, Vedelsdal R, et al. Electroacupuncture in anaesthesia for hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth. 1993;71:835-838.
50 Felhendler D, Lisander B. Pressure on acupoints decreases postoperative pain. Clin J Pain. 1996;12:326-329.
51 Magro Filho O, de Carvalho AC. Topical effect of propolis in the repair of sulcoplasties by the modified Kazanjian technique. Cytological and clinical evaluation. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent . 1994;36:102-111.
52 Man D, Man B, Plosker H. The influence of permanent magnetic field therapy on wound healing in suction lipectomy patients: a double-blind study. Plast Reconstr Surg . 1999;104:2261-2266.
53 Tate S. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea. J Adv Nurs . 1997;26:543-549.
54 Wilhelm K, Feldmeier C. Thermometric investigations about the efficacy of beta-escin to reduce postoperative edema [in German; English abstract]. Med Klin . 1977;72:128-134.
55 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Allii sativi bulbus (garlic). Exeter, UK: ESCOP; 1997. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
56 Burnham BE. Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding . Plast Reconstr Surg . 1995;95:213.
57 German K, Kumar U, Blackford HN. Garlic and the risk of TURP bleeding. Br J Urol . 1995;76:518.
58 Chu YC, Lin SM, Hsieh YC, et al. Effect of BL-10 (tianzhu), BL-11 (dazhu) and GB-34 (yanglinquan) acuplaster for prevention of vomiting after strabismus surgery in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 1998;36:11-16.
59 Cameron IW. An investigation into some of the factors concerned in the surgical removal of the impacted lower wisdom tooth, including a double blind trial of chymoral. Br J Oral Surg. 1980;18:112-124.
60 Soule SD, Wasserman HC, Burstein R. Oral proteolytic enzyme therapy (Chymoral) in episiotomy patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966;95:820-823.
61 Frank SC. Use of chymoral as an anti-inflammatory agent following surgical trauma. J Am Podiatr Assoc. 1965;55:706-709.
62 Cluzan RV, Alliot F, Ghabboun S, et al. Treatment of secondary lymphedema of the upper limb with CYCLO 3 FORT. Lymphology . 1996;29:29-35.
63 Kotani N, Hashimoto H, Sato Y, et al. Preoperative intradermal acupuncture reduces postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, analgesic requirement, and sympathoadrenal responses. Anesthesiology . 2001;95:349-356.
64 Boehler M, Mitterschiffthaler G, Schlager A. Korean hand acupressure reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg . 2002;94:872-875.
65 Weightman WM. Traditional Chinese acupuncture as an antiemetic. Br Med J . 1987;295:1379-1380.
66 Kim KS, Koo MS, Jeon JW, et al. Capsicum plaster at the Korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg . 2002;95:1103-1107.
67 Alkaissi A, Evertsson K, Johnsson VA, et al. P6 acupressure may relieve nausea and vomiting after gynecological surgery: an effectiveness study in 410 women. Can J Anaesth . 2002;49:1034-1039.
68 Sakurai M, Suleman MI, Morioka N, et al. Minute sphere acupressure does not reduce postoperative pain or morphine consumption. Anesth Analg . 2003;96:493-497.
69 Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai . 2003;86:244-250.
70 Jeffrey SLA, Belcher HJCR. Use of arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Altern Ther Health Med . 2002;8:66-68.
71 Montgomery GH, David D, Winkel G, et al. The effectiveness of adjunctive hypnosis with surgical patients: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg . 2002;94:1639-1645.
72 Gaston-Johansson F, Fall-Dickson JM, Nanda J, et al. The effectiveness of the comprehensive coping strategy program on clinical outcomes in breast cancer autologous bone marrow transplantation. Cancer Nurs . 2000;23:277-285.
73 Renzi C, Peticca L, Pescatori M. The use of relaxation techniques in the perioperative management of proctological patients: preliminary results. Int J Colorectal Dis . 2000;15:313-316.
74 Deisch P, Soukup SM, Adams P, et al. Guided imagery: replication study using coronary artery bypass graft patients. Nurs Clin North Am . 2000;35:417-425.
75 Hattan J, King L, Griffiths P. The impact of foot massage and guided relaxation following cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs . 2002;37:199-207.
76 Tusek DL, Church JM, Strong SA, et al. Guided imagery: a significant advance in the care of patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum . 1997;40:172-178.
77 Mandle CL, Jacobs SC, Arcari PM, et al. The efficacy of relaxation response interventions with adult patients: a review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs . 1996;10:4-26.
78 Leserman J, Stuart EM, Mamish ME, et al. The efficacy of the relaxation response in preparing for cardiac surgery. Behav Med . 1989;15:111-117.
79 Mandle CL, Domar AD, Harrington DP, et al. Relaxation response in femoral angiography. Radiology . 1990;174:737-739.
80 Tusek DL,, Cwynar R, Cosgrove DM. Effect of guided imagery on length of stay, pain and anxiety in cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiovasc Manag . 1999;10:22-28.
81 Crowe S, McKeating K. et al. Delayed emergence and St. John's wort. Anesthesiology . 2002;96:1025-1027.
82 Cluzan RV, Pecking AP, Mathiex-Fortunet H, et al. Efficacy of BN165 (Ginkor Fort) in breast cancer related upper limb lymphedema: a preliminary study. Lymphology . 2004;37:47-52.
83 Lee A, Done ML. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004;CD003281.
84 Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, et al. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg . 2003;96:995-998.
85 Fazel N. The effect of supermint oil on pain severity after caesarean section. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S126.
86 Tyler TF, Nicholas SJ, Hershman EB, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Sports Med . 2004;32:383-388.
87 Piotrowski MM, Paterson C, Mitchinson A, et al. Massage as adjuvant therapy in the management of acute postoperative pain: a preliminary study in men. J Am Coll Surg . 2003;197:1037-1046.
88 Hauser D, Gayowski T, Singh N. Bleeding complications precipitated by unrecognized Gingko biloba use after liver transplantation. Transpl Int . 2002;15:377-379. Epub 2002 Jun 19.
89 Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba : a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg . 2001;67:33-35.
90 Agarwal A, Dhiraaj S, Tandon M, et al. Evaluation of capsaicin ointment at the Korean hand acupressure point K-D2 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia . 2005;60:1185-1188.
91 Heden P, Pilla AA. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postoperative pain: a double-blind randomized pilot study in breast augmentation patients. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008 May 28.
92 Lang EV, Berbaum KS, Pauker SG, et al. Beneficial effects of hypnosis and adverse effects of empathic attention during percutaneous tumor treatment: when being nice does not suffice. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19:897-905.
93 Sun Y, Gan TJ, Dubose JW, et al. Acupuncture and related techniques for postoperative pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth. 2008 Jun 2.
94 Aasvang EK, Hansen JB, Malmstrom J, et al. The effect of wound instillation of a novel purified capsaicin formulation on postherniotomy pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:282-291.
95 Liu YY, Duan SE, Cai MX, et al. Evaluation of transcutaneous electroacupoint stimulation with the train-of-four mode for preventing nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Chin J Integr Med. 2008;14:94-97.
96 Wang SM, Escalera S, Lin EC, et al. Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:811-816.
97 Allen TK, Habib AS. P6 stimulation for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1308-1312.
98 Klaiman P, Sternfeld M, Deeb Z, et al. Magnetic acupressure for management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a preliminary study. Minerva Anestesiol. 2008;74:635-642.
99 Pfister DG, Cassileth BR, Deng GE, et al. Acupuncture for pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(15):2565.
100 Chen J, Lv Q, Yu M, Zhang X, Gou J. Randomized clinical trial of Chinese herbal medications to reduce wound complications after mastectomy for breast carcinoma. Br J Surg. 2010;97(12):1798-804.
101 Kim YH, Kim KS, Lee HJ, Shim JC, Yoon SW. The efficacy of several neuromuscular monitoring modes at the p6 acupuncture point in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2011;112(4):819-823.
102 Asher GN, Jonas DE, Coeytaux RR, et al. Auriculotherapy for pain management: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(10):1097-1108.
103 Coura LE, Manoel CH, Poffo R, Bedin A, Westphal GA. Randomised, controlled study of preoperative electroacupuncture for postoperative pain control after cardiac surgery. Acupunct Med. 2011;29(1):16-20.
104 Sun BM, Luo M, Wu SB, Chen XX, Wu MC. Acupuncture versus metoclopramide in treatment of postoperative gastroparesis syndrome in abdominal surgical patients: a randomized controlled trial. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010;8(7):641-644.
105 White PF, Zhao M, Tang J, et al. Use of a disposable acupressure device as part of a multimodal antiemetic strategy for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(1):31-37.
106 Yi WM, Pan AZ, Li JJ, et al. Clinical observation on the acupuncture treatment in patients with urinary retention after radical hysterectomy. Chin J Integr Med . 2011;17(11):860-863.
107Mikashima Y, Takagi T, et al. Efficacy of acupuncture during post-acute phase of rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. J Tradit Chin Med. 2012;32(4):545-548.
108Ng SS, Leung WW, et al. Electroacupuncture reduces duration of postoperative ileus after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2013;144(2):307-313.