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Antioxidants: Probably Not Effective
Herbs and Supplements to Use Only With Caution
1 Wald DS, Bishop L, Wald NJ, et al. Randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and serum homocysteine levels. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:695-700.
2 Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, et al. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids. 1983;18:343-348.
3 Gebhardt R. Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes. Lipids. 1993;28:613-619.
4 Gebhardt R, Beck H, Wagner KG. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1213:57-62.
5 Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:599-605.
6 Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. .2000;133:420-429.
7 Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carlson JJ. The effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis. 2001;154:213-220.
8 Neil HA, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1996;30:329-334.
9 Simons LA, Balasubramaniam S, von Konigsmark M, et al. On the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis. 1995;113:219-225.
10 Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein(a). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:321-326.
11 Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1189-1194.
12 Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens. 1994;12:463-468.
13 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:119.
14 Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: Garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Symp. 1990;69(suppl):3-6.
15 Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev. 1996;16:111-124.
16 Legnani C, Frascaro M, Guazzaloca G, et al. Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43:119-122.
17 Chutani SK, Bordia A. The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Atherosclerosis. 1981;38:417-421.
18 Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Pindur G, et al. Effect of garlic on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation, and other risk factors. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1991;29:151-155.
19 Reuter HD, Sendl A. Allium sativum and Allium ursinum : Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal applications. Econ Med Plant Res. 1994;6:56-113.
20 Popov I, Blumstein A, Lewin G. Antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract, 1st communication: Direct detection using the photochemiluminescence. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:602-604.
21 Torok B, Belagyi J, Rietz B, et al. Effectiveness of garlic on the radical activity in radical generating systems. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:608-611.
22 Efendy JL, Simmons DL, Campbell GR, et al. The effect of the aged garlic extract, "Kyolic," on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132:37-42.
23 Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40:1111-1116.
24 Steiner M, Khan AH, Holbert D, et al. A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:866-870.
25 Holzgartner H, Schmidt U, Kuhn U. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs. bezafibrate. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42:1473-1477.
26 Santos OS de A, Johns RA. Effects of garlic powder and garlic oil preparations on blood lipids, blood pressure and well-being. Br J Clin Res. 1995;6:91-100.
27 Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.Atherosclerosis. 1999;144:237-249.
28 Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, et al. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation. 1997;96:2649-2655.
29 Bordia A. Garlic and coronary heart disease. The effects of garlic extract therapy over three years on the reinfarction and mortality rate [translated from German]. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1989;129(suppl 15):16-17.
30 Efendy JL, Simmons DL, Campbell GR, et al. The effect of the aged garlic extract, 'Kyolic', on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132:37-42.
31 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:112.
32 Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.Atherosclerosis. 1999;144:237-249.
33 Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, et al. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation. 1997;96:2649-2655.
34 Bordia A. Garlic and coronary heart disease. The effects of garlic extract therapy over three years on the reinfarction and mortality rate [translated from German]. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1989;129(suppl 15):16-17.
39 Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:154-160.
40 Lonn EM, Yusuf S, Dzavik V, et al. Effects of Ramipril and vitamin E on atherosclerosis. The study to evaluate carotid ultrasound changes in patients treated with Ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE). Circulation. 2001;103:919-925.
41 Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP). Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Lancet. 2001;357:89-95.
42 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1997;349:1715-1720.
43 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA. 1996;275:693-698.
44 Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):1427S-1430S.
45 Tornwall ME, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation does not affect the risk for large abdominal aortic aneurysm in a controlled trial. Atherosclerosis. 2001;157:167-173.
46 Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet. 1996;347:781-786.
48 Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1450-1456.
49 Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willitt WC, et al. A prospective study of antioxidant vitamins and incidence of coronary heart disease in women [abstract]. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:609.
50 Stampfer M, Hennekens C, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1444-1449.
51 Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Dietary vitamin E intake and risk of coronary heart disease in a representative sample of US adults: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2001;103:1366.
52 Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:190-196.
53 Du BM, Lu ZL, Chen Z, et al. The beneficial effects of lipid-lowering therapy with Xuezhikang on cardiac events and total mortality in coronary heart disease patients with or without hypertension: a random, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2006;34:890-894.
54 Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. A prospective study of vitamin E and coronary heart disease among men: is benefit restricted only to primary prevention [abstract]. Circulation. 2001;103:1347.
60 Kohlmeier L, Hastings SB. Epidemiologic evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):1370S-1376S.
61 Leo MA, Lieber CS. Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:1071-1085.
62 [No authors listed]. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1029-1035.
63 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomized trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1997;349:1715-1720.
64 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA. 1996;275:693-698.
65 Kohlmeier L, Hastings SB. Epidemiologic evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(6 suppl):1370S-1376S.
66 White WS, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Erdman JW Jr, et al. Pharmacokinetics of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin after ingestion of individual and combined doses by human subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13:665-671.
67 Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet. 2001;357:657-663.
68 Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:190-196.
69Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Niacin plus simvastatin, but not antioxidant vitamins, protect against atherosclerosis and clinical events in CAD patients with low HDLC. Presented at: 73rd Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association; November 12-15, 2000; New Orleans, LA.
70 de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation. 1999;99:779-785.
71 Kubow S. Lipid oxidation products in food and atherogenesis. Nutr Rev. 1993;51:33-40.
72 Pearson TA. Alcohol and heart disease. Circulation. 1996;94:3023-3025.
73 Rimm EB, Ellison RC. Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(6 suppl):1378S-1382S.
74 Hammar N, Romelsjo A, Alfredsson L. Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern and acute myocardial infarction. A case referent study based on the Swedish twin register. J Intern Med. 1997;241:125-131.
75 Camargo CA Jr, Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk for angina pectoris or myocardial infarction in U.S. male physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:372-375.
76 Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stone CB. Does coffee drinking increase the risk of coronary heart disease? Results from a meta-analysis. Br Heart J. 1994;72:269-275.
77 Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women: a ten-year follow-up. JAMA. 1996;275:458-462.
78 Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, et al. Coffee and tea intake and the risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:162-167.
79 Kleemola P, Jousilahti P, Pietinen P, et al. Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3393-3400.
80 Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, et al. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:353-362.
81 Harris WS. N-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5 suppl):S1645-S1654.
82 Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, Mackness MI, et al. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia. Heart. 2001;85:544-548.
83 Harris WS. N-3 fatty acids and lipoproteins: comparison of results from human and animal studies. Lipids. 1996;31:243-252.
84 Nenseter MS, Osterud B, Larsen T, et al. Effect of Norwegian fish powder on risk factors for coronary heart disease among hypercholesterolemic individuals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10:323-330.
85 van Dam M, Stalenhoef AF, Wittekoek J, et al. Efficacy of concentrated n-3 fatty acids in hypertriglyceridaemia: a comparison with gemfibrozil. Clin Drug Invest. 2001;21:175-181.
86 Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, et al. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1407-1415.
87 Cobiac L, Clifton PM, Abbey M, et al. Lipid, lipoprotein, and hemostatic effects of fish vs fish-oil n-3 fatty acids in mildly hyperlipidemic males. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1210-1216.
88 Harris WS. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl 5):S1645-S1654.
89 Dyerberg J. N-3 fatty acids and coronary artery disease. Potentials and problems. Omega-3, Lipoproteins, and Atherosclerosis. 1996;27:251-258.
90 Lungershausen YK, Abbey M, Nestel PJ, et al. Reduction of blood pressure and plasma triglycerides by omega-3 fatty acids in treated hypertensives. J Hypertens. 1994;12:1041-1045.
91 Radack K, Deck C, Huster G. The effects of low doses of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1173-1180.
92 Singer P, Jaeger W, Wirth M, et al. Lipid and blood-pressure-lowering effect of mackerel diet in man. Atherosclerosis. 1983;49:99-108.
93 Singer P, Melzer S, Goschel M, et al. Fish oil amplifies the effect of propranolol in mild essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1990;16:682-691.
94 Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1429-1438.
95 Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: Results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl 2):S652-S660.
96 Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension. 1999;34:253-260.
97 Guallar E, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, et al. A prospective study of plasma fish oil levels and incidence of myocardial infarction in U.S. male physicians. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25:387-394.
98 Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2001;285:304-312.
99 Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, de Lezenne Coulander C. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:1205-1209.
100 Shekelle RB, Missell LV, Paul O, et al. Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:820-821.
101 Dolecek TA, Granditis G. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). World Rev Nutr Diet. 1991;66:205-216.
102 Kromhout D, Feskens EJM, Bowles CH. The protective effect of a small amount of fish on coronary heart disease mortality in an elderly population. Int J Epidemiol. 1995;24:340-345.
103 Vollset SE, Heuch I, Bjelke E. Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:820-821.
104 Curb JD, Reed DM. Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:821-822.
105 Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet. 1989;2:757-761.
106 Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:977-982.
107 Leaf A, Jorgensen MB, Jacobs AK, et al. Do fish oils prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty? Circulation. 1994;90:2248-2257.
108 Sacks FM, Stone PH, Gibson CM, et al. Controlled trial of fish oil for regression of human coronary atherosclerosis. HARP Research Group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25:1492-1498.
109 [No authors listed]. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354:447-455.
110 de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1994;343:1454-1459.
111 Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1995;274:1363-1367.
112 Billman GE, Hallaq H, Leaf A. Prevention of ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation by omega 3 fatty acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91:4427-4430.
113 Sellmayer A, Witzgall H, Lorenz RL, et al. Effects of dietary fish oil on ventricular premature complexes. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76:974-977.
114 Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet. 1989;2:757-761.
115 Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, et al. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:50-56.
118 Harris WS. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl):1645S-1654S.
119 Prasad K. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132:69-76.
120 Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res. 1998;18:1203-1214.
121 Singer P, Jaeger W, Berger I, et al. Effects of dietary oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids on blood pressure, serum lipids, lipoproteins and the formation of eicosanoid precursors in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1990;4:227-233.
122 Prasad K. Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. Circulation. 1999;99:1355-1362.
123 Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:395-402.
124 Tarpila S, Kivinen A. Ground flaxseed is an effective hypolipidemic bulk laxative [abstract]. Gastroenterology. 1997;112:A836.
125 Laurora G, Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, et al. Control of the progress of arteriosclerosis in high risk subjects treated with mesoglycan. Measuring the intima media [translated from Italian]. Minerva Cardioangiol. 1998;46:41-47.
126 Laurora G, Cesarone MR, De Sanctis MT, et al. Delayed arteriosclerosis progression in high-risk subjects treated with mesoglycan. Evaluation of intima-media thickness. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;34:313-318.
127 Tanganelli P, Bianciardi G, Carducci A, et al. Updating on in-vivo and in-vitro effects of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (mesoglycan) on arterial endothelium: a morphometrical study. Int J Tissue React. 1992;14:149-153.
128 Anderson TJ, Hubacek J, Wyse DG, et al. Effect of chelation therapy on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease: PATCH substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:420-425.
129 Kummerow FA, Zhou Q, Mahfouz MM. Effect of trans fatty acids on calcium influx into human arterial endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:832-838.
130 Schecter M, Bairey Merz CN, Stuehlinger HG, et al. Effects of oral magnesium therapy on exercise tolerance, exercise-induced chest pain, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:517-521.
131 Laws A, King AC, Haskell WL, et al. Relation of fasting plasma insulin concentration to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in men. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991;11:1636-1642.
132 Job FP, Wolfertz J, Meyer R, et al. Hyperinsulinism in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 1994;5:487-492.
133 Fontbonne A, Tchobroutsky G, Eschwege E, et al. Coronary heart disease mortality risk: plasma insulin level is a more sensitive marker than hypertension or abnormal glucose tolerance in overweight males. The Paris Prospective Study. Int J Obes. 1988;12:557-565.
134 Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:952-957.
135 Pyorala K, Savolainen E, Kaukola S, et al. Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor: relationship to other risk factors and predictive value during 9-1/2 year follow-up of the Helsinki Policemen Study population. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1985;701:38-52.
136 Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, et al. Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 1998;279:1955-1961.
137 Saydah SH, Loria CM, Eberhardt MS, et al. Subclinical states of glucose intolerance and risk of death in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:447-453.
138 Haffner SM. The importance of hyperglycemia in the nonfasting state to the development of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Rev. 1998;19:583-592.
139 Guallar E, Jimenez J, van t' Veer P, et al. The association of chromium with the risk of a first myocardial infaction in men. The EURAMIC Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2001;103:1366.
140 Imai K, Nakachi K. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. BMJ. 1995;310:693-696.
141 Kono S, Shinchi K, Ikeda N, et al. Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study in northern Kyushu, Japan. Prev Med. 1992;21:526-531.
142 Tsubono Y, Tsugane S. Green tea intake in relation to serum lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Ann Epidemiol. 1997;7:280-284.
143 van het Hof KH, de Boer HSM, Wiseman SA, et al. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1125-1132.
144 Barrett-Connor E, Goodman-Gruen D. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate does not predict cardiovascular death in postmenopausal women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Circulation. 1995;91:1757-1760.
145 Herrington DM, Nanjee N, Achuff SC, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1996;15:88-93.
146 Jesse RL, Loesser K, Eich DM, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995;774:281-290.
147 Barrett-Connor E, Khaw K-T, Yen SSC. A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:1519-1524.
148 Nafziger AN, Herrington DM, Bush TL. Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: their relation to cardiovascular disease. Epidemiol Rev. 1991;13:267-293.
149 Barrett-Connor E, Khaw K-T. Absence of an inverse relation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with cardiovascular mortality in postmenopausal women [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:711.
150 Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, et al. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1416-1424.
151 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998;317:1341-1345.
152 Tham DT, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:2223-2235.
153 Crouse JR III, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2070-2076.
154 Nestel PJ, Yamashita T, Sasahara T, et al. Soy isoflavones improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:3392-3398.
155 Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G, et al. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:813-824.
156 Angerer P, Stork S, Kothny W, et al. Effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids on peripheral atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease—a randomised 2 year intervention trial [abstract]. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(suppl):162.
157 Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2002;112:298-304.
158 Ohrvall M, Sundlof G, Vessby B. Gamma, but not alpha, tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. J Intern Med. 1996;239:111-117.
159 Kristenson M, Zieden B, Kucinskiene Z, et al. Antioxidant state and mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian and Swedish men: concomitant cross sectional study of men aged 50. BMJ. 1997;314:629-633.
160 Kontush A, Spranger T, Reich A, et al. Lipophilic antioxidants in blood plasma as markers of atherosclerosis: the role of alpha-carotene and gamma-tocopherol. Atherosclerosis. 1999;144:117-122.
161 El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Spiegelman D, et al. Dietary and adipose tissue gamma-tocopherol and risk of myocardial infarction. Epidemiology. 2002;13:216-223.
162 Muntwyler J, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin supplement use in a low-risk population of US male physicians and subsequent cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1472-1476.
163 Marchioli R, Schweiger C, Levantesi G, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of cardiovascular disease: epidemiological and clinical trial data. Lipids. 2001;36:S53-63.
164 Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:230-235.
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