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Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Treatments for Fibromyalgia
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4 Rossy LA, Buckelew SP, Dorr N, et al. A meta-analysis of fibromyalgia treatment interventions. Ann Behav Med. 1999;21:180-191.
5 Meyer BB, Lemley KJ. Utilizing exercise to affect the symptomology of fibromyalgia: a pilot study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1691-1697.
6 Tavoni A, Vitali C, Bombardieri S, et al. Evaluation of S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. A double-blind crossover study. Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):107-110.
7 Tavoni A, Jeracitano G, Cirigliano G. Evaluation of S-adenosylmethionine in secondary fibromyalgia: a double-blind study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998;16:106-107.
8 Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Andersen RB. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. Double-blind clinical evaluation. Scand J Rheumatol. 1991;20:294-302.
9 Volkmann H, Norregaard J, Jacobsen S, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of intravenous S-adenosyl-L-methionine in patients with fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol. 1997;26:206-211.
10 Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Andersen RB. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. Double-blind clinical evaluation. Scand J Rheumatol. 1991;20:294-302.
11 Caruso I, Sarzi Puttini P, Cazzola M, et al. Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytryptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res. 1990;18:201-209.
15 McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy, et al. Treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: A pilot study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1994;23(suppl 3):41-47.
16 Merchant RE, Andre CA. A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7:79-80,82-91.
17 Pouria S, de Andrade A, Barbosa J, et al. Fatal microcystin intoxication in haemodialysis unit in Caruaru, Brazil. Lancet. 1998;352:21-26.
18 Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, et al. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108:435-439.
19 Islam MS, Rahim Z, Alam MJ, et al. Association of Vibrio cholerae O1 with the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp., elucidated by polymerase chain reaction and transmission electron microscopy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93:36-40.
20 Berman BM, Ezzo J, Hadhazy V, et al. Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia? J Fam Pract. 1999;48:213-218.
21 Deluze C, Bosia L, Zirbs A, Chantraine A, Vischer TL. Electroacupuncture in fibromyalgia: results of a controlled trial. BMJ. 1992;305:1249-1252.
23 Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic®: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:953-958.
24 Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic®: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:953-958.
25 Abraham GE, Flechas JD. Management of fibromyalgia: rationale for the use of magnesium and malic acid. J Nutr Med. 1992:3:49-59.
26Feldman D, da Costa Sao Paulo ED. Treatment of fibromyalgia with acupuncture: a randomized, placebo controlled trial of 16 weeks duration. American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting. Nov 2001. San Francisco, CA.
27 Haanen HC, Hoenderdos HT, van Romunde LK, et al. Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in the treatment of refractory fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 1991;18:72-75.
28 Fors EA, Sexton H, Gotestam KG. The effect of guided imagery and amitriptyline on daily fibromyalgia pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2002;36:179-187.
29 Sunshine W, Field T, Quintino O, et al. Fibromyalgia benefits from massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation. J Clin Rheumatol. 1996;2:18-22.
30 Offenbacher M, Stucki G. Physical therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 2000;113:78-85.
31 Brattberg G. Connective tissue massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Eur J Pain. 1999;3:235-244.
32 Smith WA. Fibromyalgia syndrome. Nurs Clin North Am. 1998;33:653-669.
33 Alfano AP, Taylor AG, Foresman PA, et al. Static magnetic fields for treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2001;7:53-64.
34 Colbert AP, Markov MS, Banerji M, et al. Magnetic mattress pad use in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized double-blind pilot study. J Back Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. 1999;13:19-31.
35 Gamber RG, Shores JH, Russo DP, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in conjunction with medication relieves pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized clinical pilot project. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2002;102:321-325.
36 Citera G, Arias MA, Maldonado-Cocco JA, et al. The effect of melatonin in patients with fibromyalgia: a pilot study. Clin Rheumatol. 2000;19:9-13.
37 Finckh A, Berner IC, Aubry-Rozier B, et al. A randomized controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:1336-1340.
38 Assefi NP, Sherman KJ, Jacobsen C, et al. A randomized clinical trial of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:10-19.
39 Harris RE, Tian X, Williams DA, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia with formula acupuncture: investigation of needle placement, needle stimulation, and treatment frequency. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:663-671.
40 Smania N, Corato E, Fiaschi A, et al. Repetitive magnetic stimulation A novel therapeutic approach for myofascial pain syndrome. J Neurol. 2005 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]
41 Astin JA, Berman BM, Bausell B, et al. The efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus qigong movement therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:2257-2262.
42 Sverdrup B. Use less cosmetics—suffer less from fibromyalgia? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004;13:187-194.
43 Jones KD, Adams D, Winters-Stone K, Burckhardt CS. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988-2005). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:67. Available at: http://www.hqlo.com/content/pdf/1477-7525-4-67.pdf . Accessed October 2, 2006.
44 K, Lammi K, Hypen M, et al. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000;29:308-313.
45 Mayhew E, Ernst E. Acupuncture for fibromyalgia—a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print]
46 Bach GL, Clement DB. Efficacy of Farabloc as an analgesic in primary fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]
47 Ko GD, Hum A, Traitses G, Berbrayer D. Effects of topical O24 essential oils on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized, placebo controlled pilot study. J Musculoskelet Pain. 2007;15:11-19.
48 Massey PB. Reduction of fibromyalgia symptoms through intravenous nutrient therapy: results of a pilot clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13:32-34.
49 Fioravanti A, Perpignano G, Tirri G, et al. Effects of mud-bath treatment on fibromyalgia patients: a randomized clinical trial. Rheumatol Int. 2007 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
50 Donmez A, Karagulle MZ, Tercan N, et al. SPA therapy in fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled clinic study. Rheumatol Int. 2005;26:168-172.
51 Rossini M, Di Munno O, Valentini G et al. Double-blind, multicenter trial comparing acetyl l-carnitine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007;25:182-188.
52 Busch AJ, Schachter CL, Overend TJ, et al. Exercise for fibromyalgia: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2008 May 1.
53 Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al. Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for aerobic fitness exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 1. Phys Ther. 2008 May 22.
54 Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al. Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for aerobic fitness exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 2. Phys Ther. 2008 May 22.
55 McVeigh JG, McGaughey H, Hall M, et al. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review. Rheumatol Int. 2008 Aug 27.
56 Assefi N, Bogart A, Goldberg J, et al. Reiki for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:1115-1122.
57 Ali A, Njike VY, Northrup V, et al. Intravenous micronutrient therapy (Myers' Cocktail) for fibromyalgia: a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:247-257.
58 Langhorst J, Klose P, Musial F, et al. Efficacy of acupuncture in fibromyalgia syndrome--a systematic review with a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:778.
59 Wang C, Schmid C, Rones R, et al. A randomized trial of Tai Chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med . 2010;363(8):743.
60 Carson JW, Carson KM, Jones KD, Bennett RM, Wright CL, Mist SD. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of Awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia. Pain. 2010;151(2):530-539.
61 Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Sánchez-Labraca N, et al. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(1):25-35.
62 Mendonca ME, Santana MB, Baptista AF, et al. Transcranial DC stimulation in fibromyalgia: optimized cortical target supported by high-resolution computational models. J Pain. 2011;12(5):610-617.
63 Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Arroyo-Morales M, Saavedra-Hernández M, Fernández-Sola C, Moreno-Lorenzo C. Effects of myofascial release techniques on pain, physical function, and postural stability in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(9):800-813.
64 Hargrove JB, Bennett RM, Simons DG, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled study of noninvasive cortical electrostimulation in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Pain Med. 2012;13(1):115-124.
65Meeus M, Nijs J, et al. The effect of relaxation therapy on autonomic functioning, symptoms and daily functioning, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia: A systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2014 Sep 8 [Epub ahead of print].
66Mendonca ME, Santana MB, Baptista AF. Transcranial DC stimulation in fibromyalgia: optimized cortical target supported by high-resolution computational models. J Pain. 2011;12(5):610-317.
67Villamar MF, Wivatvongvana P, Patumanond J. Focal modulation of the primary motor cortex in fibromyalgia using 4×1-ring high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS): immediate and delayed analgesic effects of cathodal and anodal stimulation. J Pain. 2013;14(4):371-383.
68Fagerlund AJ, Hansen OA, Aslaksen PM. Transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2015;156(1):62-71.