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Reiter’s Syndrome

(Reactive Arthritis)
  • Definition

    Reiter’s syndrome is an inflammatory reaction to an infection somewhere in the body. It usually follows an infection of the urinary, genital, or digestive tract. It is treated with rest and medication.
  • Causes

    Reiter's syndrome is triggered by certain infections. It is usually caused by the bacterium that causes chlamydia. Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected partner. The infection can also begin in the digestive system. In these cases, the infection occurs after eating food tainted with bacteria.
  • Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your chance of getting Reiter's syndrome include:
    • Family members with Reiter's syndrome
    • Inheriting the genetic trait associated with Reiter’s syndrome (HLA-B27)
    • Having a chlamydia infection or an infection in the digestive system
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms occur in the joints, the eyes, the urinary tract, and genitals. Men and women may experience different symptoms. In rare cases, heart problems may develop later in the disease.
    Joints
    • Swelling, pain, and redness, especially in the knees, ankles, and feet
    • Heel pain
    • Back pain and stiffness
    Eyes
    • Redness
    • Burning
    • Irritation
    • Blurred vision
    • Tearing
    • Discharge
    Urinary Tract and Reproductive System
    In men:
    • Burning sensation when passing urine
    • Penile discharge
    Male Urinary System
    Male Genito-urinary System
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
    In women:
    • Burning sensation when passing urine
    • Inflamed vagina and cervix
    Other Symptoms
    • Rash, especially on the palms or soles
    • Ulcers in the mouth or on the tongue
    • Weight loss
    • Poor appetite
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor uses these findings to help make the diagnosis. There is no specific test to check for Reiter’s syndrome.
    Your doctor may need to test your bodily fluids and tissues. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Culture, gram stain, or other tests
    • Removal of fluid from the affected joints
    Your doctor may need pictures of your bodily structures. This can be done with x-rays.
  • Treatment

    There is no cure for Reiter’s syndrome. Most people recover from the initial episode within 12 months. Others develop mild, chronic arthritis. Some suffer from additional episodes of the disorder.
    Treatment aims to relieve symptoms and may include:
    Rest
    Short-term rest to take the strain off the joints.
    Protecting the Joints
    This includes:
    • Assistive devices as recommended by your doctor
    • Occupational therapy to learn how to take it easy on joints during daily activities
    Medications
    Your doctor may prescribe some of the following:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • Sulfasalazine
    • Steroid injections into the inflamed joint
    • Topical steroid creams applied to skin lesions
    • Antibiotics to treat the triggering infection
    • Medication that suppresses the immune system
    • Eye drops
  • Prevention

    To reduce your chance of Reiter's syndrome:
    • Always use a latex condom during sexual activity
    • Have a monogamous relationship
    • Do not go back and forth between sexual partners
    • Have regular checkups for sexually transmitted diseases
    • Wash hands before eating or handling food
    • Only eat foods that have been stored and prepared properly
  • RESOURCES

    Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org

    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases http://www.niams.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

    The Arthritis Society http://www.arthritis.ca

    References

    Questions and answers about reactive arthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/health%5Finfo/reactive%5Farthritis/default.asp. Updated October 2012. Accessed May 21, 2013.

    Reactive arthritis. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases%5Fand%5Fconditions/reactivearthritis.asp. Updated February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.

    Reactive arthritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 29, 2012. Accessed May 21, 2013.

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