Use the form below to search the Health Library.

  
 Health Information  Health Articles  Any
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hlt&AN=2010817283&site=ehost-live

Chronic Renal Failure

(Chronic Kidney Disease)
  • Definition

    Chronic renal failure is an deficiency in kidney function. Kidneys clean waste from the blood, which passes out of the body in urine.
    Anatomy of the Kidney
    Glomerulonephritis
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
  • Causes

    Chronic renal failure is often caused by diseases such as:
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Vascular diseases
    • Kidney diseases
    • Obstructive diseases, such as kidney stones
    • Polycystic kidney disease
    • Acute tubular necrosis
    • Glomerular disease
    • Renal tubular disorders
    • Toxin/drug-induced kidney disease
    • Severe infection
    • Autoimmune diseases
  • Risk Factors

    The following factors increase your chance of developing chronic renal failure. If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms include:
    • Tiredness
    • Weakness
    • Not sleeping well
    • Less desire to eat than usual
    • Nausea
    • Itching
    • Shortness of breath
    • Altered taste
    • Altered mental state
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctors will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Biopsy
    Images may be taken of your kidneys. This can be done with ultrasound .
    Patients who are already at high risk for kidney disease should be tested more frequently so any damage can be diagnosed early. Patients with kidney disease will be referred to a specialist called a nephrologist, who is dedicated to managing kidney diseases.
  • Treatment

    Although chronic kidney disease cannot be cured, it is possible to slow the damage to the kidney in most patients. Your doctor may recommend any of the following:
    • Controlling protein in the urine by restricting the amount of protein in the diet or medication
    • Taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists to slow the progression to chronic renal failure
    • Reducing the use of and the dosages of drugs that may be toxic to the kidneys
    • Managing the complications of chronic renal disease such as fluid overload, high blood phosphate or potassium levels, low blood level of calcium, and anemia
    • Lowering high blood pressure
    • Controlling blood sugar and lipid levels
    • Staying hydrated
    • Controlling salt in the diet
    • Participating in an exercise training program to keep you physically fit and reduce the chance of depression
    • Quitting smoking
    • Undergoing dialysis , a medical process that cleans the blood
    • Having a kidney transplant
    • Counseling for you and your family about dialysis and/or transplant options
  • Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of chronic kidney failure, take the following steps:
    • Get a physical exam every year that includes a urine test to monitor your kidney's health.
    • Do not smoke. Stop smoking if you are a smoker.
    • Maintain a healthy weight.
    • Drink water and other fluids to stay hydrated.
    • People who have diabetes, previously known kidney disease, high blood pressure, or are over the age of 60 should be screened regularly for kidney disease.
    • People with a family history of kidney disease should also be screened regularly.
  • RESOURCES

    Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

    National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

    References

    Chronic renal failure. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 12, 2013.

    Pendse S, Singh AK. Complications of chronic kidney disease: anemia, mineral metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005; 89:549-561.

    Snyder S and Pendergraph B. Detection and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician. 2005; 72:1739-1746. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20051101/1723.html. Accessed July 12, 2013.

    Zandi-Nejod K, Brenner BM. Strategies to retard the progression of chronic renal disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005; 89:489-509.

    8/26/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training in adults with CKD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64(3):383-393.

    Revision Information

  • Connect with Steward

    Visit Our Twitter Feed Visit Our Facebook Page Email This Page Print This Page

    Subscribe to our patient e-newsletter

    Copyright © 2014 Steward Health Care
    Connect Healthcare Panacea CMS Solutions