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(Coccyalgia; Coccygeal Pain; Coccygodynia; Pain, Tailbone; Pain, Coccygeal; Tailbone Pain)
  • Definition

    Coccydynia is pain in the area of the coccyx (tailbone). It is a small, curved, V-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine.
    The Coccyx
    Nuclus factsheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
  • Causes

    The tailbone can be found at the end of the spinal column. It supports the body in a sitting position and helps transfer body weight during changes in sitting positions. It is also an area where muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendons from other locations in the body come together. Excess pressure can affect these structures.
    In most cases, the specific cause of coccydynia is unknown. Other times, it may be caused by:
    • Trauma or injury from falls
    • Tailbone shift during childbirth
    • Other stress that affects that tailbone
    Pain can come from bones, muscles, nerves, or supporting structures.
  • Risk Factors

    Coccydynia is more common in females. Other factors that may increase your chance of coccydynia include:
    • Brittle bones, which can occur with osteoporosis
    • Joint inflammation or changes in bone structure, which can occur with arthritis
    • Participation in contact sports or certain activities, such as horseback riding
    • Dislocation from injury or obesity , which can cause bones to shift
    • Prolonged sitting on hard surfaces
    • Low back pain
    • Infections, such as osteomyelitis
    • Spinal cyst or tumor
  • Symptoms

    Pain may occur when:
    • Sitting down
    • Changing position from sitting to standing
    • Having a bowel movement
    • Having sex
    Coccydynia may cause:
    • Tenderness directly over tailbone
    • All-over backache
    • Pain or spasm of pelvic or rectal muscles
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. This will include an evaluation of the tailbone to see if the area is swollen, red, or warm.
    Imaging tests to look for fractures, dislocation, or other damage in the tailbone may include:
  • Treatment

    In most cases, coccydynia will resolve on its own with conservative treatment. This includes using a special seating cushion to relieve pressure on the tailbone.
    If the coccyx is misaligned, it may be manually manipulated into place. Other treatments include:
    Inflammation and/or pain may be relieved by:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • Steroid injections
    • Nerve blocks
    • Antidepressants
    Stool softeners can help reduce strain during bowel movements.
    Physical Therapy
    Physical therapy may include:
    • Exercises to strengthen muscles and supporting structures (like ligaments)
    • Relief and stimulation with heat therapy and ultrasound therapy
    Other Treatments
    Some people find relief with:
    • Massage
    • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
    Your doctor may also refer you to counseling.
    Coccygectomy is the surgical removal of the tailbone. This surgery is not generally recommended and may be considered if all other treatments methods fail.
  • Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of coccydynia:
    • Learn proper sitting posture
    • If you have to sit for long periods at work, get up and move around periodically
    • Use proper protection during sports or activities where you may be injured

    Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians

    Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons


    Canadian Association of General Surgeons

    Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation


    Coccydynia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 28, 2010. Accessed December 17, 2014.

    Coccydynia (tailbone pain). Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: Accessed December 17, 2014.

    Lirette LS, Chaiban G, et al. Coccydynia: An overview of the anatomy, etiology, and treatment of coccyx pain. Oschsner J. 2014;14(1):84-87.

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