Hypernatremia—Adult

  • Definition

    Hypernatremia is when there is too much sodium in the body. It may be serious and requires care from your doctor.
  • Causes

    Hypernatremia happens when there is an imbalance in the amount of water and sodium in the body—too little water, too much sodium.
    The main cause of hypernatremia is having more water leave your body than enter it. This causes dehydration. A person can become dehydrated in different ways, such as:
  • Risk Factors

    Risk factors include:
    • Not getting enough fluids or the correct fluids
    • Fever
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Using certain diuretics—medications that increase urination
    • Severe burns
    • Losing too much fluid
    • Increased age
    • Having certain medical conditions such as diabetes or kidney disorder
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:
    • Being thirsty
    • Dry mouth
    • Muscle weakness or muscle cramps
    • Decreased urination
    • Weight loss
    • Lightheadedness
    • Irritability
    • Confusion
    • Muscle twitching
    If left untreated, the condition may lead to death.
    Dry Mouth
    Dry Mouth and Throat
    Dry mouth is a symptom of hypernatremia.
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  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. You will be asked about your fluid intake and urine output. A physical exam will be done.
    Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Urine tests
  • Treatment

    Fluid Replacement
    Liquids can be given by mouth or IV to balance the fluids in your body. The fluid will contain a specific concentration of water, sugar, and sodium. Reintroducing fluids slowly into your body will lower the sodium to a normal level. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you.
    You may also be given medication to treat nausea.
  • Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of getting hypernatremia, take these steps:
    • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of the fluids.
    • Work with your doctor to manage any health conditions.
  • RESOURCES

    FamilyDoctor.org—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    References

    Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. Hypernatremia. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18; 342(20):1493-1499.

    Chassagne P, Druesne L, et al. Clinical presentation of hypernatremia in elderly patients: a case control study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Aug; 54(8):1225-1230.

    Dehydration and hypovolemia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 18, 2013. Accessed February 26, 2014.

    Hypernatremia. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec13/ch167/ch167b.html#v1149497. Updated March 2013. Accessed February 26, 2014.

    Stuart W, Smellie A, et al. Hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia: pitfalls in testing. BMJ. 2007 March 3; 334(7591): 473-476.

    Revision Information

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